International Journal of Human Anatomy

International Journal of Human Anatomy

International Journal of Human Anatomy

Current Issue Volume No: 1 Issue No: 4

Editorial Open Access Available online freely Peer Reviewed Citation

Human Anatomy: An Inlet of Medicine and Surgery 

1Professor and Former Chairman of Human Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Author Contributions
Received 23 Jul 2019; Accepted 25 Jul 2019; Published 26 Jul 2019;

Academic Editor: Shuji Kitahara, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Japan.

Checked for plagiarism: Yes

Review by: Single-blind

Copyright ©  2019 Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

Creative Commons License     This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy (2019) Human Anatomy: An Inlet of Medicine and Surgery . International Journal of Human Anatomy - 1(4):1-1.

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DOI 10.14302/issn.2577-2279.ijha-19-2976


Human anatomy is a biological science that deals with the normal structure of body and its function and abnormal or pathological deviation. It represents the main basic medical science. The anatomical sciences include gross anatomy studied by the naked eyes without use of magnifying devices; microanatomy investigated using microscopes; developmental anatomy dealing with embryogenesis and pre- and postnatal changes; radiological anatomy using X-ray and other imaging modalities; functional or physiological anatomy; pathological anatomy; genetics or called study of inheritance; anthropology clarifying the differences in structure in-between different races. Anatomical sciences represent the corner-stone for all other medical sciences and guide for clinicians in diagnosis and management of different cases. Therefore, we can say: “no anatomy study is without clinical correlations & vice versa; no clinical application without anatomy knowledge”. 1

Currently, the air and food are prone to increasing levels of pollutions due wide spread of different minute particles use such as nanoparticles and others in industry. This represents a big challenge to the general health. The normal anatomy of human body is vulnerable to various hazards resulting from human body exposure to many elements that could be found in foods and air. Chemicals introduced in manufacture of food as well as nanoparticles in industry should be thoroughly investigated for their possible hazards on the normal anatomy of human body throughout their use.

Structure is a mirror reflecting any change or illness of the human body. Therefore, it is essential to investigate such changes to minimize their effect or even to recommend abstinence of the more dangerous particles. Fortunately, there are many natural products that might alleviate the harms. Therefore, future research is recommended; and should also include investigating ameliorating effect of possible protective agents such antioxidants against any detectable deviation in normal structure. 


  1. 1.Hegazy A A.Anatomy is a misnomer to aims of its study. , Academia Anatomica International 3(1), 1.

Cited by (3)

  1. 1.Hegazy Abdelmonem Awad, Morsy Manal Mohammad, Moawad Rania Said, Elsayed Gehad Mohammad, Mustafa Hesham N., 2019, Changes in Adult Rats’ Testis structure Induced by Hypothyroidism and Alleviating Role of L-Carnitine, International Journal of Human Anatomy, 1(4), 13, 10.14302/issn.2577-2279.ijha-19-3026
  1. 2.Awadelseid Khalid Musa Fadlelmula, Zhang Yi, 2020, Morphological Study of the Posterior Tibial Nerve in Tarsal Tunnel of the Human Foot, International Journal of Human Anatomy, 2(3), 1, 10.14302/issn.2577-2279.ijha-20-3445
  1. 3.Hegazy Mohammad Abdelmonem, Khairy Hossam Mohammed, Hegazy Abdelmonem Awad, Sebaei Mohamed Abd El Fattah, Sadek Sami Ibrahim, 2023, Talus bone: normal anatomy, anatomical variations and clinical correlations, Anatomical Science International, 98(3), 391, 10.1007/s12565-023-00712-y